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Lifekey Counseling - Mindful-Somatic Therapy for Complex Trauma: Anxiety, Shame, Stuckness


Trauma and Mental Health Newsfeed


Feed Source 1: https://content.apa.org/journals/cfp.rss?_ga=2.47267047.1199169574.1611372918-1609441361.1609294731

1. Testing adaptations of cognitive-behavioral conjoint therapy for PTSD: A randomized controlled pilot study with veterans.icon indicating external link

psycnet.apa.org Posted on Wednesday June 02, 2021 (cache)
Iraq and Afghanistan Veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have well-documented relationship problems and many wish to include their intimate partners in treatment. This pilot study randomly assigned 46 couples (Veterans with clinician-administered PTSD scale confirmed PTSD diagnosis and their intimate partners) to one of two groups. The treatment group received a modified mindfulness-based version of cognitive-behavioral conjoint therapy for PTSD (CBCT; Monson & Fredman, 2012) that included all three phases of the mindfulness-based cognitive behavioral conjoint therapy (MB-CBCT). The control group received a modified version of CBCT that included communication skills training from Phases 1 and 2 of CBCT (CBCT-CS) without PTSD-specific content. Modified CBCT Phases 1 and 2 content was delivered to both groups during weekend retreats in multicouple group sessions. The postretreat protocol for MB-CBCT included nine individual couple sessions: a transition session following the retreat, and CBCT Phase 3. For CBCT-CS, two additional monthly multicouple group sessions reviewed communication skills. No statistically significant pre- to posttreatment differences were detected for primary outcomes between groups: Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale for Veterans (mean change difference, −1.4, 95% CI [−16.0 to 13.2]); Dyadic Adjustment Scale for Veterans (mean change difference, −1.0, 95% CI [−13.2 to 11.2]); and Dyadic Adjustment Scale for Partners (mean change difference, −0.4, 95% CI [−8.9 to 8.1]). However, within group pre- to posttreatment effect sizes were medium to large for both MB-CBCT and CBCT-CS on all three primary outcomes. Findings suggest that Veterans returning from recent conflicts and their partners may benefit from both modifications of CBCT. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)

2. Rethinking resilience in families of children with autism spectrum disorders.icon indicating external link

psycnet.apa.org Posted on Wednesday October 28, 2020 (cache)
Families of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) experience more stress than families of children who develop typically or families of children with other disabilities; even so, many families of children with ASD experience family functioning that is at least as healthy as other families. This systematic review includes a synthesis and critique of peer-reviewed articles between 1994 and 2018 that examined family resilience in families of children with ASD. These studies demonstrate that there are certain experiences common to these families that influence their experience of the process of resilience. Critique of the use of theory in these articles provides the foundation for a recommendation of including minority stress theory and ecological theory into this body of literature. Methodological critique indicates substantial opportunities for the use of newer, innovative methods to enhance future research in this area. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)

3. “Life is already hard enough”: Lesbian and gay adoptive parents’ experiences and concerns after the 2016 presidential election.icon indicating external link

psycnet.apa.org Posted on Wednesday May 12, 2021 (cache)
The 2016 U.S. presidential election was an especially difficult election for many Americans, particularly individuals with one or more marginalized identities. This qualitative study explores the experiences of sexual minority adoptive parents (<em>n</em> = 50), many of whom were members of multiracial families. Parents completed an online survey 2–3 weeks after the November 2016 presidential election, and 2.5 months later (1–2 weeks after the January 2017 inauguration). Through an integrated minority stress and intersectional theory lens, we examined participants’ emotional responses to this stressful, ambiguous political event, their perceptions of how immediate and extended family relationships shifted during the election and its aftermath, and how they coped with stress, including relationship stress, exacerbated by the election and the political climate. Most participants reported experiencing negative emotions such as fear/anxiety, anger, and sadness upon learning the outcome of the election. Many participants reported that the election impacted family dynamics, including conflict with extended family, partners, or children. Adoptive sexual minority parents coped in a variety of ways, including by pursuing activism, connecting with others, and disengaging from thinking about the election. These findings have implications for how mental health care providers may support adoptive sexual minority parent families to cope with stressful political events. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)

4. Development and validation of the Hope for Parenting Scale.icon indicating external link

psycnet.apa.org Posted on Wednesday June 02, 2021 (cache)
The current project aimed to develop and validate the Hope for Parenting Scale (HFPS), a five-item self-report instrument that addresses hopeful thinking of parents. In Sample 1, 413 fathers of infants completed the HFPS. In Sample 2, 290 mothers and fathers of children age 0–18 completed the HFPS. Exploratory factor analyses were conducted using Sample 1 and the single factor solution suggested by EFA item loadings was examined using confirmatory factor analysis with Sample 2. Convergent validity was established via significant correlations to criterion measures of trait hope and paternal involvement with infants. Discriminant validity was established through significant correlations to a measure of depression, anxiety, and stress. Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)

5. Commitment uncertainty and alliance formation.icon indicating external link

psycnet.apa.org Posted on Wednesday June 02, 2021 (cache)
In couple therapy, the systemic alliance is an important process variable. However, the ways in which the systemic alliance influences therapy outcomes and factors that influence alliance development are not well understood. When starting couple therapy, 10%–40% of individuals experience commitment uncertainty or a lack of clarity about what they want for the future of their relationship (Doherty et al., 2016; Owen et al., 2012; Owen, Rhoades, et al., 2014). In the present study, the association of the systemic alliance to individual and relational therapeutic outcomes was examined. Additionally, alliance development over the first five sessions was examined in relation to pretreatment reported commitment uncertainty. Multilevel models controlling for individuals nested within couples were performed to examine how pretreatment commitment uncertainty predicted alliance development. Results revealed that all levels of the systemic alliance improved over the first five therapy sessions, but gender differences emerged in relation to the association between the alliance and outcomes at the individual and relational levels. Additionally, individuals who reported commitment uncertainty at baseline reported lower starting levels of the alliance between partners and lower perceptions of the alliance between one’s partner and the therapist, but there were no significant differences in alliance development. These data suggest that couple therapy is beneficial even when individuals experience commitment uncertainty. Furthermore, the data suggest that the systemic alliance is an important element of therapy for therapists to track as part of early therapeutic change. Implications for therapists who are working with couples are offered. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)


Feed Source 2: https://content.apa.org/journals/trm.rss?_ga=2.52179177.1199169574.1611372918-1609441361.1609294731

1. Evaluating the association between interpersonal trauma and self-identity: A systematic review.icon indicating external link

psycnet.apa.org Posted on Wednesday July 21, 2021 (cache)
Research has demonstrated that interpersonal trauma can have deleterious effects on functioning, including disrupting the development and stability of an individual’s self-identity (e.g., self-concept or sense of self). A growing volume of studies have investigated the relation between trauma-related symptoms and self-identity following interpersonal trauma exposure. Hence, it is timely to conduct a review of this literature. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the association between interpersonal trauma and self-identity. A final search of the literature was conducted using the EbscoHost, Medline, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Cochrane databases. The review methodology was based on the PRISMA guidelines, and the risk of bias of individual studies was assessed with the Quality Assessment Tool for Studies of Diverse Design. A total of 59 studies published in peer-reviewed journals met the inclusion criteria for this review. Assessment tools of self-identity were highly variable across the included studies. Despite the differences in measures, overall, interpersonal trauma was found to have a negative impact on self-identity across the life span, which attests to the need to address the issue of altered self-identity in psychotherapy interventions. Future research should also aim to develop a reliable and valid assessment of self-identity, given the lack of consensus in this field. In addition, there is a notable paucity of prospective, longitudinal studies in this field, which need to be addressed in future research. Moreover, future studies are warranted to evaluate factors that may influence the detrimental impact of interpersonal trauma on self-identity. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)

2. A systematic review on the impact of trauma-informed education programs on academic and academic-related functioning for students who have experienced childhood adversity.icon indicating external link

psycnet.apa.org Posted on Sunday January 17, 2021 (cache)
The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the existing literature regarding trauma-informed education programs and their impact on academic and academic-related outcomes. The articles included for review (n = 15) contained data on trauma-informed education programs implemented in preschool, primary/elementary, and high school settings. Academic and academic-related outcomes reported included attendance, disciplinary referrals, suspension, and academic achievement, as well as student resilience, school attachment, and emotional presentation. Findings from this systematic review highlight that trauma-informed education programs can improve students’ academic and academic-related outcomes; however, results were not consistent across the studies. Moving forward, recommendations include the need for additional trauma-informed school-based research to be conducted and dissemination of this research to ensure school systems are upskilled and responding appropriately to their traumatized students. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)

3. Sudden unexpected death as a traumatic stressor: The impact of the DSM–5 revision of Criterion A for posttraumatic stress disorder.icon indicating external link

psycnet.apa.org Posted on Sunday June 21, 2020 (cache)
The definition of a traumatic event in Criterion A for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was narrowed in the <em>Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition</em> (<em>DSM–5</em>) for events involving indirect exposure to the death of a loved one. Whereas the <em>DSM–IV</em> definition encompassed the sudden, unexpected death of a loved one regardless of the circumstances, the <em>DSM–5</em> definition now requires the death to be violent or accidental. At present, the effects of this more restrictive definition are relatively unknown. As such, the present study examined the impact of the <em>DSM–5</em> definition on the prevalence of Criterion A and the symptom profiles of individuals meeting the <em>DSM–IV</em> versus the <em>DSM–5</em> definition. In 2 samples of trauma-exposed college students (<em>N</em> = 299 and <em>N</em> = 387, respectively), ordinal logistic regression compared individuals with either indirect exposure to a sudden, unexpected death, indirect exposure to a violent or accidental death, or direct exposure to a severe motor vehicle accident. PTSD symptoms were assessed using <em>DSM–IV</em> criteria in Sample 1 and <em>DSM–5</em> criteria in Sample 2. Results indicated that the more restrictive <em>DSM–5</em> definition reduced the prevalence of those meeting Criterion A for events involving the death of a loved one. However, few significant differences were found between sudden, unexpected death and the 2 trauma groups meeting <em>DSM–5</em> Criterion A (i.e., violent or accidental death and motor vehicle accident) when compared on individual PTSD symptoms and PTSD symptom clusters. Diagnostic and research implications regarding the Criterion A change are discussed. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)

4. Patterns of posttraumatic stress symptoms among international humanitarian aid workers.icon indicating external link

psycnet.apa.org Posted on Sunday December 13, 2020 (cache)
Most studies of mental health in humanitarian aid workers have found low levels of posttraumatic stress disorder, making it hard to disaggregate and look at differences between subgroups. This study sought to identify the risk and protective factors associated with resistant, resilient, and nonresilient trajectories of stress response over time that could be used to inform more targeted training and organizational support programs for aid workers. Aid workers from 19 qualifying humanitarian organizations who aged ≥18 years and were to deploy for 3 to 12 months completed questionnaires at 3 time points (pre, post, and follow-up). We identified 3 unique groups (nonresilient, resistant, and resilient) using latent class growth analysis and identified predictors of subgroup classification using multivariate logistic regression. Single individuals were less likely to be in the resilient group than in the resistant group compared to coupled individuals. Individuals with one prior deployment were three times more likely to be nonresilient than resistant compared to individuals with no previous deployments. There was no significant difference in resistant, resilient, and nonresilient classification for individuals with >2 deployments. Findings suggest a need for supplemental training and psychosocial support post the first deployment as well as resources focused on potential this should be cumulative rather than accumulative effects of stress and trauma exposure for more seasoned deployers. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)

5. Family violence, trauma, and positive change research output over time: A bibliometric analysis.icon indicating external link

psycnet.apa.org Posted on Wednesday July 01, 2020 (cache)
Three decades on from positive psychology as a theoretical construct, domestic violence research volume and characteristics, inclusive of transgenerational patterns, overlooks the potential for positive change/posttrauma growth or differences cross-culturally including indigenous and European populations in former colonial western countries. This bibliometric analysis examined volume and characteristics of peer-reviewed publications from PsycINFO and ProQuest concerning domestic violence over 3 periods in Australia, a former colony with an indigenous population: 1990–1998, 2000–2008, and 2010–2018. Using a descriptive repeat cross-sectional evaluation with publications categorized according to database, study type (descriptive, measures, intervention), study focus, theoretical framework, perspective, sexual relationship type, cultural background, and age, it examined research output trends, specifically aspects of positive psychology. Overall, there has been a significant increase in the volume of publications reporting on intimate partner and family violence within Australia across the 3 time periods. However, there was no statistically significant increase in reporting on study focus, positive outcomes, sexual relationship types, or cultural backgrounds. Worldwide, attitudes vary considerably toward family violence influenced by culture, religion, education, sexual relationship type, and geography. In summary, though a Poisson regression did show a significant increase in number of publications over the full time span, increasing from 1 study in 1990–1998, to 5 in 2000–2008, to 23 in 2010–2018, there remains a paucity of research output in this field. Furthermore, no lens in the literature explored positive outcomes or cross-cultural aspects of domestic violence impacting indigenous populations in former colonial western countries. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)

6. Changes in perceptions and attitudes toward self and others in survivors of the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks.icon indicating external link

psycnet.apa.org Posted on Sunday November 29, 2020 (cache)
This study examined positive and negative post-9/11 perceptions and attitudes toward oneself and others, using categorical and open-text responses to 6 research questions about perceptions of self and others after the disaster. Nearly 3 years after the 9/11 terrorist attacks on average, a volunteer sample of 379 employees from 8 New York City companies completed interviews about their disaster experience. A total of 5 themes emerged from a qualitative analysis of the verbal responses: compassion and tolerance, perspectives and priorities, relationships, adaptation, and posttraumatic stress. Both categorical and text response changes had slightly more positive than negative material, in both self and others. Few responses suggested posttraumatic stress symptoms. Positive changes identified may reflect underrecognized resilience potential not readily appreciated in acute disaster settings when the immediate focus is on injury, loss, and emotional pain. These findings also suggest that survivors of even the most severe disasters can identify positive aspects of their disaster experience and are willing to discuss this positive material. Efforts to foster disaster survivors’ abilities to recognize positive aspects of their disaster experience might facilitate their emotional recovery, boost their resilience, and promote healing. Numerous negative perceptions and attitudes expressed by these 9/11 survivors seem resonant with the polarized nature and increased intolerance reflected in current national crises in the form of a major pandemic and widespread social unrest over racism. Examination of positive and negative perceptions and attitudes may provide material for contemplation of disaster experience as part of cognitive processing and addressing behaviors and emotions in psychotherapy. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)

7. Social support and self-construal as moderators of lifetime trauma exposure on posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms.icon indicating external link

psycnet.apa.org Posted on Wednesday September 09, 2020 (cache)
Although social support is consistently associated with symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), little is known about the nuances of this relationship. This study aimed to investigate the influence of self-construal (independence vs. interdependence orientation) on the associations between PTSD and posttrauma functional social support (appraisal, tangible, belonging, and emotional) using a sample of European Australian and Asian Australian trauma survivors. Participants (<em>N</em> = 118, 85% female) completed a series of self-report measures assessing social support and PTSD symptoms. We found that only emotional support moderated the relationship between lifetime trauma exposure and PTSD symptoms. Second, independent self-construal did not moderate the moderating effect of functional support on the relationship between lifetime trauma exposure and PTSD symptoms. However, interdependent self-construal did moderate the moderation effects (moderated moderation) of total, tangible, and belonging supports on the relationship between lifetime trauma exposure and PTSD symptoms. The findings suggest that self-construal, particularly interdependence, may play an important role in influencing the effectiveness of social support in moderating the relationship between trauma exposure and PTSD and indicate a need for greater research in this area. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)

8. Complex trauma among African American mothers in child protective services.icon indicating external link

psycnet.apa.org Posted on Wednesday November 11, 2020 (cache)
More than 90% of mothers who become involved with child protection have histories of complex trauma exposure. Influenced by complex trauma, mothers react to involvement with child protection in a variety of ways. The goal of this study was to identify common reactions mothers with complex histories of trauma use to manage involvement with the child protection system and to examine those responses using a trauma-informed lens. Using an embedded case study design, in-depth interviews and file reviews were conducted with 20 African American mothers who had histories of complex trauma. Data analysis revealed mothers with complex trauma managed involvement with the child protection system in four primary ways: (a) hostility and combativeness, (b) disappearing or intermittently disappearing and reengaging in services, (c) superficial compliance, and (d) immobilizing fear. Although there has been increasing awareness of the high prevalence of trauma among child-welfare-involved mothers, the majority of trauma-informed services have been directed toward children. Research has suggested individuals who have histories of trauma cannot benefit from services that are not trauma informed. More research needs to be directed toward mothers with histories of complex trauma. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)

9. Prevalence rates of adverse childhood experiences in a sample of minor-attracted persons: A comparison study.icon indicating external link

psycnet.apa.org Posted on Sunday June 28, 2020 (cache)
Sexual abuse prevention efforts need to focus on understanding the potential risk factors and treatment needs of minor-attracted persons (MAPs). The aim of this exploratory study was to describe the adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) of male MAPs and compare these to rates of ACEs in the general male population (<em>n</em> = 7,970) and in groups of individuals who have been convicted of sexual offenses (ISOs, <em>n</em> = 679). The participants were a nonrandom, purposive sample of MAPs (<em>n</em> = 293; 116 men completed all questions) who participated in an online anonymous survey. The ACEs with the highest frequencies were verbal/emotional abuse (75%) and bullying by peers and siblings (78%), with around a quarter stating that these events occurred “very often” (20% and 29%, respectively). Also, a majority of the MAPs (52%) had an ACE score of 4 or more, and fewer than 10% had an ACE score of one. Compared to the general male population, they were more likely to have experienced almost every form of ACEs and were almost 40 times more likely to have experienced emotional abuse and more than 8 times more likely to have experienced emotional neglect. In contrast, there were fewer differences with the ISOs, but MAPs reported more child maltreatments (i.e., emotional abuse and emotional neglect) compared to the ISOs who, other than sexual abuse, had higher rates of family dysfunction (i.e., domestic violence and substance use in the home). Implications for prevention and intervention are discussed, including the need for a trauma-informed approach when working with MAPs. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)

10. Examining psychological resilience and posttraumatic growth following terrorist attacks in Turkey.icon indicating external link

psycnet.apa.org Posted on Wednesday September 16, 2020 (cache)
Acts of terrorism, being highly prevalent across the world, disrupt community and social functioning and can lead to negative psychological reactions in individuals. However, positive outcomes can also be evoked after adverse experiences. The current study aimed to explore two salutogenic or positive outcomes—resilience and posttraumatic growth (PTG)—following exposure to terrorist attacks. The sample included 331 university students who were exposed to a terrorist attack in Turkey during the last 18 months prior to data collection. Participants responded to the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory, and a participant information form. The relationship between resilience and PTG was examined through correlation analysis and regression analyses with linear and quadratic components. Resilience and PTG were positively correlated. Tendency toward spirituality was the only resilience domain that was significantly correlated with all domains of growth. Total score of resilience was significantly associated with scores on all subscales of the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory except appreciation of life. Results indicated that only linear relationships existed between domains of resilience and PTG in the study sample. The positive and linear association between resilience and PTG suggests that resilience may be an important tool for facilitating growth. After terrorist attacks, mental health care planning should adopt a patient-centered approach that acknowledges the possibility of positive outcomes following traumatic events and focuses on the impact as well as recovery phases in traumatized individuals. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)


Feed Source 3: https://content.apa.org/journals/tra.rss?_ga=2.51533161.1199169574.1611372918-1609441361.1609294731

1. Validation of the Attitudes Related to Trauma-Informed Care Scale (ARTIC).icon indicating external link

psycnet.apa.org Posted on Wednesday December 09, 2020 (cache)
Objective: The purpose of the current study is to validate the Attitudes Related to Trauma-Informed Care Scale (ARTIC; Baker et al., 2016), a measure of trauma-informed care (TIC) attitudes for human service/health providers and educators. Method: The current study with 1,395 human services/health providers and educators from 17 settings examined the factor structure, reliability, and construct validity of the ARTIC. Results: The 7-factor structure of the ARTIC-45 and the 5-factor structure of the ARTIC-35 were replicated with regard to the absolute fit indices though they failed to meet the cutoff for the incremental fit indices, likely due to the complexity of the measure. Internal consistencies ranged from acceptable to excellent across the instrument’s forms, subscales, and versions. Providing support for construct validity, ARTIC scores were predictably related to familiarity with and knowledge about TIC, compassion satisfaction, burnout, and secondary traumatic stress, with effect sizes typically in the medium range. However, predicted relationships between ARTIC scores and training in TIC and trauma-sensitive school elements were not evident. Conclusions: The ARTIC is a direct, efficient, and cost-effective measure of attitudes related to TIC. This study further demonstrates the reliability of the ARTIC and provides some support for its validity. Evaluating the favorability of staff attitudes about TIC plays a key role in ensuring readiness for, effectiveness of, and sustainability of TIC in systems. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)

2. Development and validation of the Functional Posttraumatic Cognitions Questionnaire (FPTCQ) in children and adolescents exposed to accidental trauma.icon indicating external link

psycnet.apa.org Posted on Sunday November 08, 2020 (cache)
Objective: Cognitive models of posttraumatic stress disorder highlight posttraumatic cognitions (PTCs) as a crucial mechanism of trauma adjustment. So far, only dysfunctional PTCs have been investigated in detail. Research on functional PTCs is scarce. This study addresses this gap by developing and validating a self-report measure called <em>Functional Posttraumatic Cognitions Questionnaire</em> (FPTCQ) in children and adolescents. Method: The questionnaire was administered to 114 children and adolescents aged 7 to 15 years who had experienced an acute accidental potentially traumatic event, such as a road traffic accident or a burn injury, and as a result received medical treatment. In addition to classical item analysis and exploratory factor analysis, reliability and construct validity of the FPTCQ were investigated. Results: The exploratory factor analysis revealed a one-factor structure of the FPTCQ. The final 11-item questionnaire displayed satisfactory internal consistency (Cronbach’s α = .78), irrespective of age. Functional PTCs were inversely related to dysfunctional PTCs,<em> r</em> = −.44, <em>p</em> < .001, posttraumatic stress symptoms, <em>r</em> = −.35,<em> p</em> < .001, depression symptoms,<em> r</em> = −.22, <em>p</em> < .05, and anxiety symptoms, <em>r</em> = −.43, <em>p</em> < .001, thus supporting construct validity. Conclusions: The FPTCQ is a reliable and valid measure for standardized assessment of functional PTCs among children and adolescents. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)

3. Measurement invariance of the World Assumptions Questionnaire across race/ethnic group, sex, and sexual orientation.icon indicating external link

psycnet.apa.org Posted on Wednesday February 03, 2021 (cache)
Objective: The World Assumptions Questionnaire (WAQ) was developed to assess optimism and assumptions about the world, which often shift after traumatic events. However, no known study has investigated whether the WAQ holds similar meaning across demographic groups. The objective of this study was to investigate measurement invariance of the WAQ across race/ethnic group, sex, and sexual orientation. Method: Participants consisted of 1,181 college students (75% female; 25% Black, 13% Latinx, 18% Asian, 45% White; 90% heterosexual) who completed an online survey on stress, personality, substance use, and mental health. We investigated a unidimensional and the 4-factor structure of the WAQ using confirmatory factor analysis, and configural, metric, and scalar invariance using multigroup confirmatory factor analysis. Results: After dropping 3 items, a 4-factor structure fit the data well (comparative fit index = .92; root mean square error of approximation =.05; 95% confidence interval [.045, .054]; standardized root mean square residual = .06). Mean WAQ scores were higher for participants with probable posttraumatic stress disorder on 2 of the 4 factors. We also identified multiple items that were not invariant across race/ethnic group, sex, and sexual orientation. However, after invariant items were removed, evidence of configural, scalar, and metric invariance was found. Conclusions: This study replicated the 4-factor structure, mapping onto the 4 WAQ subscales, and indicated that a unidimensional measure of world assumptions should not be used. After making the adjustments recommended herein, the WAQ can be used to investigate differences across race/ethnic group, sex, and sexual orientation. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)

4. Toward the assessment of adverse adult experiences: An initial validation study of the adult experiences survey.icon indicating external link

psycnet.apa.org Posted on Wednesday December 09, 2020 (cache)
Objective: The current investigation is a validation study of the Adult Experiences Survey, a seminal assessment of adverse adult experiences. Method: Data were collected between July 2015 and June 2019 from a sample of 1,747 low-income women as part of a longitudinal study in Wisconsin, United States. Analyses of 10 adversities were conducted to assess item prevalence and internal consistency in the full sample and test–retest reliability in a subsample of 90 participants. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were performed to examine the factor structure of the measure, and multivariate regressions were conducted to estimate the effects of adult adversity on 3 health-related outcomes: poor physical health, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Results: Most participants (86%) endorsed at least 1 adversity. Each item demonstrated good test–retest reliability except crime victimization, and the full measure had sound internal consistency. Each adversity was associated with all health-related outcomes at the bivariate level, and most were linked to 1 or more outcomes in multivariate analyses. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses validated 1- and 2-factor solutions with good fit. A cumulative adult adversity score was associated with all study outcomes controlling for adverse childhood experiences, and effects associated with a latent adversity score were even larger in magnitude. Conclusions: Extending research on adverse childhood experiences, the findings indicate that adverse adult experiences can be measured reliably and validly using a brief assessment. Implications are discussed, including opportunities to advance the study of trauma and resilience over the life course. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)

5. Validation of the Japanese version of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire—Short Form (CTQ–J).icon indicating external link

psycnet.apa.org Posted on Sunday September 27, 2020 (cache)
<b><em>Objective:</em></b> Facing a surge of child maltreatment reports, Japan has a need for concise assessment tools. Although the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) is accepted internationally as an instrument for childhood maltreatment, its Japanese version has not been validated. The present study examined the validity of the Japanese version of the CTQ (CTQ–J). <b><em>Method:</em></b> The CTQ–J was administered to Japanese adolescents in a residential institution (institutionalized group; <em>n</em> = 31) and adolescents without experience of institutionalization (community group; <em>n</em> = 46) from the greater Tokyo area. Analysis of variance was conducted to compare CTQ–J scores among the institutionalized group with documented maltreatment, the institutionalized group without documented maltreatment, and the community group, for the total score and 5 subscale scores. The discrimination of scores assessed by the CTQ–J were calculated using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis and identifying documented maltreatment. <b><em>Results:</em></b> Internal consistency was “good” to “acceptable” in all subscales (Cronbach’s alpha > .74). In each maltreatment type, the institutionalized group with documented maltreatment experiences showed significantly higher CTQ–J scores than did the other groups. The area under the curve showed higher discrimination for the total score of the CTQ–J (0.95) and each subscale (0.98–0.86). <b><em>Conclusion:</em></b> This study demonstrated the reliability of the CTQ–J at the “good” to “acceptable” level and supported the criterion validity by identifying documented maltreatment cases in the child welfare records, although careful attention should be paid in its application. Further research is needed to test the CTQ–J’s ability to identify less severe form of maltreatment using a more representative sample. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)

6. Assessment of posttraumatic stress disorder among women after childbirth using the City Birth Trauma Scale in Spain.icon indicating external link

psycnet.apa.org Posted on Wednesday January 27, 2021 (cache)
Objective: Postpartum posttraumatic stress disorder (PP-PTSD) affects 3.1–6.3% of women after childbirth. The City Birth Trauma Scale (City-BiTS) is a questionnaire designed to evaluate and diagnose this disorder, according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.) criteria, including the following groups of symptoms characteristic of posttraumatic stress: reexperiencing, avoidance, negative cognitions and mood, and hyperarousal. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Spanish-language version of this questionnaire (City-BiTS-S), based on a community sample of Spanish women. Method: A total of 207 mothers, recruited at three health centers in southern Spain, completed the City-BiTS-S questionnaire and provided sociodemographic and obstetric data. Results: Exploratory factor analysis of the data replicated the two-factor structure reported in previous studies that explained 47.9% of the variance: Factor 1 of general symptoms and Factor 2 of birth-related symptoms. Both City-BiTS-S (Cronbach’s alpha = .90) and the two factors (Cronbach’s alpha for Factor 1 = 0.89; Cronbach’s alpha for Factor 2 = 0.82) presented high internal consistency. Rasch analysis confirmed the unidimensionality of the two factors as valid subscales of the PP-PTSD. Results suggested reducing response options, reviewing Item 8, and rewording Item 3 in the Spanish version. Conclusions: The City-BiTS-S presents appropriate psychometric properties to measure symptoms of PP-PTSD. Nevertheless, further research is recommended to confirm its validity in a clinical population and in different medical approaches to the birth process. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)

7. Validation of the Early Trauma Inventory Self Report-Short Form and trauma prevalence in Colombia.icon indicating external link

psycnet.apa.org Posted on Wednesday February 10, 2021 (cache)
Objective: Early traumatic experiences are related to profound and long-lasting negative effects on mental and physical health. Colombia has been involved in a war for the last six decades. Thus, the main objective was to adapt and validate the Early Trauma Inventory Self Report-Short Form in Colombia, as well as assess trauma prevalence in this country. Method: For this purpose, a total of 2,080 Colombians participated in this study (57.3% women and 42.4% men). Age ranged from 18 to 77 years old. They answered the 27-item version of the Early Trauma Inventory Self Report-Short Form and a sociodemographic evaluation tool. Web-based sampling was carried out between March 16 and March 30, 2020. Results: Original four factor structure was successfully explored and confirmed here. Reliability indexes were good with alphas ranging from .69 to .93. Items properties were also adequate. Most of the assessed sample suffered trauma in their early stages (99.8%). Gender differences were analyzed observing significant differences. As expected, sexual abuse is more prevalent in women. Conclusions: To the best of our knowledge, the Colombian population has suffered the highest prevalence of early trauma experiences so far when compared to other countries. Emotional and social implications are discussed. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)

8. Coping and rumination as mediators in the development of reactive embitterment in the general population.icon indicating external link

psycnet.apa.org Posted on Wednesday September 23, 2020 (cache)
Objective: Embitterment encapsulates reactive emotions such as worthlessness or helplessness after negative life events that contravene one’s basic beliefs. However, no psychological model of the development of persistent embitterment has yet been investigated. We examined mediating factors for reactive embitterment, focusing on cognitive processes, including coping and rumination, among young South Korean adults. Method: A total of 1,000 young adults aged 18–35 answered an online survey questionnaire measuring distress caused by negative life events, coping strategies, rumination, and embitterment. To examine the mediating associations of coping and rumination with embitterment, we tested path analysis models separately. Results: Distress was both directly and indirectly related to embitterment (mediated by maladaptive strategies of dysfunctional coping and intrusive rumination; total association β = .54, <em>p</em> < .001). The estimated indirect association of distress via maladaptive strategy with embitterment was 0.45, accounting for 82.4% of the total association of distress on embitterment. The ratio of indirect association via maladaptive strategy to direct association was 4.64. The results of this study have implications for better clinical understanding and treatment of embitterment. Conclusions: The association between dysfunctional strategies and embitterment severity suggests that clinicians should attenuate potential aggravating factors, including dysfunctional coping and intrusive rumination. Given that a combination of dysfunctional coping approaches increased the risk of reactive embitterment fourfold, these variables can be regarded as important for the development of preventive service programs for people at risk of embitterment. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)

9. Associations between relationship quality, social network resources, appraisals, coping, and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms.icon indicating external link

psycnet.apa.org Posted on Wednesday January 20, 2021 (cache)
<b><em>Objective:</em></b> This study aimed to explore whether posttrauma cognitions and maladaptive coping strategies mediated the association between perceived social support (availability of social network and quality of specific relationships) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. <b><em>Method:</em></b> A community sample of trauma survivors (<em>N</em> = 67, 84% female) completed self-report measures assessing relationship quality, perceived availability of social network support, PTSD symptoms, negative posttrauma appraisals and maladaptive coping strategies. <b><em>Results:</em></b> Posttrauma appraisals mediated the association between quality of relationships (support, conflict and depth) and PTSD symptoms, and between availability of social network support and PTSD symptoms. Further, there was an indirect pathway between social support (quality of relationship and availability of social network) and PTSD symptoms through negative cognitive appraisals and maladaptive coping strategies (serial mediation). <b><em>Conclusions:</em></b> Our results are consistent with theoretical predictions that socially supportive (support, depth and social network availability) and unsupportive (conflict) relationships are associated with PTSD, through cognitive appraisal and coping processes. Clinical implications for further integrating interpersonal support into cognitive therapies were discussed. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)

10. Emotionally valenced and modality-specific dual tasks: Effects on voluntary reminding and proactive interference in trauma-exposed individuals suffering from PTSD.icon indicating external link

psycnet.apa.org Posted on Wednesday January 20, 2021 (cache)
<b><em>Objectives:</em></b> People suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) often experience distressing traumatic memories. Therapeutic methods that apply a secondary task while clients recall a trauma memory may further assist in modifying the vividness and emotionality of the trauma memory and in reducing intrusions. In this experiment, we aimed to investigate whether the emotional valence (positive vs. neutral) and sensory modality (visual vs. auditory) of a secondary task reduces the vividness and emotionality of the trauma memory and the proactive interference. <b><em>Method:</em></b> Sixty PTSD patients exposed to road traffic accident traumas were randomized to one of four groups in a 2 (emotional valence: positive, neutral) × 2 (modality: visual, auditory) design. Participants were then exposed to a positive or a neutral clip that was visual or auditory and were required to recall the trauma memory during exposure to the clip. Vividness and emotionality of the trauma memory and proactive interference were assessed before and after exposure to the clip and at a 1-week follow-up. <b><em>Results:</em></b> Results revealed that participants who recalled the trauma memory while exposed to the positive clip reported their trauma memory as being less distressing (but not less vivid) and indicated less proactive interference than did participants exposed to the neutral clip. Nevertheless, modality had no significant effect in attenuating the proactive interference under conditions of modality congruence. <em><b>Conclusion:</b></em> Inducing positive emotion while performing a dual task may be an effective module in therapeutic approaches. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)


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